Alpha GPC


Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, simply referred to as Alpha GPC is a pro-phospholipid nutrient that is readily soluble in water and found in nature in abundance in human mother’s milk (Kidd, 2002). Alpha GPC, administered orally, easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it is a building block for acetylcholine (ACh) a common neurotransmitter throughout the brain as well as body (Kidd, 2002; Lopez, 2001).

Benefits and Effects

  • Increases mental acuity or focus in healthy adult and elderly subjects (Kidd, 2001);
  • Improves attention and recall in young healthy adults (Canal et al., 1991; Canal et al., 1993; Kidd, 2002);
  • Improves reaction time in middle-aged and elderly adults (Moglia, Bergonzoli, & Moliner, 1990; Sicurella, 1990; Kidd, 2002);
  • Improved cognitive deficits of emotional state, confusion and apathy associated with Dementia (Parnetti, Amenta & Gallai, 2001; Kidd, 2002; Wang, Zhang & Tang, 2009);
  • Decreased the recovery time of those inflicted with ischemic damage, such as a stroke (Parnetti et al., 2001; Sangiorgi et al., 1994);
  • Improved isometric strength during weight training (Bellar, LeBlanc & Campbell, 2015);
  • Reduces inflammation, improves microcirculation and hepatocellular quality (Harmann, et al., 2014; Tőkés, 2015);
  • Shows neuroprotective ability in animal studies (Plangar, 2014; Szabó, 2016).




Bellar, D., LeBlanc, N. R., & Campbell, B. (2015). The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 42. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x

Canal N, et al. (1991). Effect of L-a-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine. Intl J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxico, (29), 103-107.

Canal N, et al. (1993). Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with choline alfoscerate, idebenone, aniracetam and placebo on scopolamine-induced amnesia. Le Basi Razionali della Terapia, (23) 102-107.

Hartmann, P., Fet, N., Garab, D., Szabó, A., Kaszaki, J., Srinivasan, P. K., … & Boros, M. (2014). L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine reduces the microcirculatory dysfunction and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase type 4 induction after partial hepatic ischemia in rats. Journal of Surgical Research, 189(1), 32-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.12.025

Kidd, P. M. (2001). GPC, Nutraceutical breakthrough for mental performance. Total Health, 23, 55-56.

Kidd, P. (2002). Phospholipids: versatile nutraceuticals for functional foods. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, 1-5.

Lopez, C. M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F., Bergamaschi, S., Longoni, A., Giaroni, C., & Trabucchi, M. (1991). Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39(4), 835-840. DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(91)90040-9

Moglia, A., Bergonzoli, S., & De Moliner, P. (1990). Effect of aGFC in brain mapping changes in patients with age associated memory impairment (AAMI). Le Basi Razionali della Terapia, 20, 83-89.

Parnetti, L., Amenta, F., & Gallai, V. (2001). Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 122(16), 2041-2055. DOI: 10.1016/S0047-6374(01)00312-8

Plangár, I., Szabó, E. R., Tőkés, T., Mán, I., Brinyiczki, K., Fekete, G., … & Hideghéty, K. (2014). Radio-neuroprotective effect of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) in an experimental rat model. Journal of neuro-oncology, 119(2), 253-261. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-014-1489-z

Sangiorgi, G. B., Barbagallo, M., Giordano, M., Meli, M., & Panzarasa, R. (1994). α‐Glycerophosphocholine in the Mental Recovery of Cerebral Ischemic Attacks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 717(1), 253-269. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb12095.x

Sicurella, L. (1990). Changes in VEP in subjects treated with alphaGFC. Preliminary study. Le Basi Raz Ter, 20, 91.

Szabó, E. R., Plangár, I., Tőkés, T., Mán, I., Polanek, R., Kovács, R., … & Hideghéty, K. (2016). l-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine as a potential radioprotective agent in zebrafish embryo model. Zebrafish, 13(6), 481-488. DOI: 10.1089/zeb.2016.1269

Tőkés, T., Tuboly, E., Varga, G., Major, L., Ghyczy, M., Kaszaki, J., & Boros, M. (2015). Protective effects of l-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine on ischaemia–reperfusion-induced inflammatory reactions. European journal of nutrition, 54(1), 109-118. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-014-0691-2

Wang, J., Zhang, H. Y., & Tang, X. C. (2009). Cholinergic deficiency involved in vascular dementia: possible mechanism and strategy of treatment. Acta pharmacologica sinica, 30(7), 879. DOI:10.1038/aps.2009.82

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