Ashwagandha

Summary

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) also known as Indian ginseng is one of the most widely touted phytoherbs and is knwon for its promotion of health and general strength, having been used for centuries (Raut et al., 2012; Sangwan et al., 2008; Tiwari et al., 2014). The phytoherb Ashwagandha, has been implemented successfully in traditional medicines throughout many cultures including Chinese, Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha (Raut et al., 2012). In Ayurveda, Ashwagandha is categorized as a Rasayana herb due to its life promoting abilities (Kuboyama et al., 2014). Investigations into the bioactive components of the plant have found that the primary acting metabolites are withanolides (Sangwan et al., 2008). Withanolides occupy receptor sites where direct activation of these steroidal lactones is moderated (Tiwari et al., 2014).

Benefits and Effects

  • Anti-aging (Sangwan et al., 2008; Singh et al., 2010; Verma & Kumar, 2011);
  • Anti-arthritic (Kumar et al., 2015; Sangwan et al., 2008; Singh et al., 2011);
  • Anti-cancer (Widodo et al., 2008);
  • Anti-inflammatory (Chandra et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2010; Singh et al., 2011; Tiwari et al., 2014);
  • Antioxidant (Kuboyama et al., 2014; Singh et al., 2010; Widodo et al., 2008);
  • Adaptogenic, Anti-stress and Anti-anxiety (Chandrasekhar et la., 2012; Pratte et al., 2014; Verma & Kumar, 2011; Singh et al., 2011; Tiwari et al., 2014);
  • Reduces total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (Raut et al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2014; Verma & Kumar, 2011);
  • Improves sleep quality (Raut et al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2014);
  • Supports healthy immune system functioning (Singh et al., 2010; Tiwari et al., 2014; Verma & Kumar, 2011; Yamada et al., 2011);
  • Enhances muscle strength (Raut et al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2014);
  • Promotes cognitive functioning (Choudhary et al., 2017; Sangwan et al., 2008; Verma & Kumar, 2011);
  • Improves cardiovascular functioning (Singh et al., 2010; Tiwari et al., 2014);
  • Enhances sexual behaviour and functioning (Tiwari et al., 2014);
  • Protects against neurodegenerative disorders and toxins (Kuboyama et al., 2014; Sangwan et al., 2008; Tiwari et al., 2014);

Doseage

Ashwagandha is typically mixed in its powder form with water, honey, ghee, or milk (Raut et al., 2012).

As low as 50 to 100 mg

Optimal at 300 to 500 mg

Maximum daily doses as high as 6 grams per day divided into three doses of 2 grams have been well tolerated according to Examine (2018), though this is not recommended.

References

Chandra, S., Chatterjee, P., Dey, P., & Bhattacharya, S. (2012). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of ashwagandha: a preliminary study in vitro. Pharmacognosy Journal, 4(29), 47-49. DOI: 10.5530/pj.2012.29.7

Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J., & Anishetty, S. (2012). A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 34(3), 255. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022

Choudhary, D., Bhattacharyya, S., & Bose, S. (2017). Efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal) root extract in improving memory and cognitive functions. Journal of dietary supplements, 14(6), 599-612. DOI: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1284970

Examine. (2018, March 15). Ashwagandha. Retrieved from https://examine.com/

Kuboyama, T., Tohda, C., & Komatsu, K. (2014). Effects of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) on neurodegenerative diseases. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 37(6), 892-897. DOI: 10.1248/bpb.b14-00022

Kumar, G., Srivastava, A., Sharma, S. K., Rao, T. D., & Gupta, Y. K. (2015). Efficacy & safety evaluation of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder & Sidh Makardhwaj) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot prospective study. The Indian journal of medical research, 141(1), 100. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405924/

Raut, A. A., Rege, N. N., Tadvi, F. M., Solanki, P. V., Kene, K. R., Shirolkar, S. G., … & Vaidya, A. B. (2012). Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 3(3), 111. DOI: 10.4103/0975-9476.100168

Pratte, M. A., Nanavati, K. B., Young, V., & Morley, C. P. (2014). An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(12), 901-908. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2014.0177

Sangwan, R. S., Chaurasiya, N. D., Lal, P., Misra, L., Tuli, R., & Sangwan, N. S. (2008). Withanolide A is inherently de novo biosynthesized in roots of the medicinal plant Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Physiologia plantarum, 133(2), 278-287. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.2008.01076.x

Singh, N., Bhalla, M., de Jager, P., & Gilca, M. (2011). An overview on ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 8(5S). DOI: 10.4314/ajtcam.v8i5S.9

Singh, G., Sharma, P. K., Dudhe, R., & Singh, S. (2010). Biological activities of Withania somnifera. Annals of Biological Research, 1(3), 56-63. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rupesh_Dudhe2/publication/265245087_Biological_activities_of_Withania_somnifera/links/551e4f430cf29dcabb03ae02.pdf

Tiwari, R., Chakraborty, S., Saminathan, M., Dhama, K., & Singh, S. V. (2014). Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): Role in safeguarding health, immunomodulatory effects, combating infections and therapeutic applications: A review. Journal of Biological Science, 14(2), 77-94. DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2014.77.94

Verma, S. K., & Kumar, A. (2011). Therapeutic uses of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) with a note on withanolides and its pharmacological actions. Asian Journal Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 4(1), 1-4. Retrieved from http://www.ajpcr.com/Vol4Suppl1/408.pdf

Widodo, N., Takagi, Y., Shrestha, B. G., Ishii, T., Kaul, S. C., & Wadhwa, R. (2008). Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: Components, activity and pathway analyses. Cancer letters, 262(1), 37-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2007.11.037

Yamada, K., Hung, P., Park, T. K., Park, P. J., & Lim, B. O. (2011). A comparison of the immunostimulatory effects of the medicinal herbs Echinacea, Ashwagandha and Brahmi. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 137(1), 231-235. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.017

Yerba Mate

Summary

Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) grows in the subtropical regions of South America and was originally consumed by the South American aboriginals (Bastos et al., 2007). Yerba Mate is one of the most commonly used plants in South America, consumed mostly as a tea preparation as well as in food formulations (Arçari et al., 2009; Kang et al., 2012). Yerba Mate is known to have numerous psychobiological activities after consumption, which is notably attributed to the plants high polyphenol levels (Arçari et al., 2009). Yerba Mate also contains the flavonoids quercetin and rutin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, and saponins (Arçari et al., 2009). Formica and Regelson (1995) note that flavonoids have been shown to have antiprostanoid, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, and antiarrhythmic effects. The main producer of Yerba Mate is Argentina, where the plant holds great social and economic importance (Bastos et al., 2007). The plant, typically consumed as a tea in a traditional gourd is commonly known for its stimulating properties, where the caffeine within the Mate was previously incorrectly defined as mateine. In addition to caffeine, Yerba Mate contains the methylxanthines theobromine, and may contain theophylline (Bastos et al., 2007). Currently, Mate is used as a healthy alternative to coffee and tea and is touted for its valuable effects on health.

Benefits and Effects

  • Inhibits cancer cell proliferation and shows a chemoprotective affect through NF‐κB inhibition (Arçari et al., 2009; Bastos et al., 2007; de Mejía et al., 2010; Puangpraphant et al., 2013);
  • Holds a high antioxidant capacity and protects against DNA damage (Heck & De Mejia, 2007; Filip, 2000; de Mejía et al., 2010);
  • Vasodilatation effects (Arçari et al., 2009; Loch, 2014);
  • Inhibits glycation and atherosclerosis (Arçari et al., 2009; De Morais et al., 2009; Heck & De Mejia, 2007);
  • Promotes thermogenic effects (Arçari et al., 2009);
  • Shows antiobesity and antidiabetic effects in animal studies, through the normalization of triglyceride lipids, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and glucose (Acari et al., 2009; Bastos et al., 2007; Kang et al., 2012).

Dosage

In Brazil and Argentina Yerba Mate is consumed by millions in its tea form at approximately one litre per day (Bastos, 2007).

References

Arçari, D. P., Bartchewsky, W., Santos, T. W., Oliveira, K. A., Funck, A., Pedrazzoli, J., … & Carvalho, P. D. O. (2009). Antiobesity Effects of yerba maté Extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in High‐fat Diet–induced Obese MiceObesity17(12), 2127-2133. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.158

Bastos, D. H. M., Oliveira, D. D., Matsumoto, R. T., Carvalho, P. D. O., & Ribeiro, M. L. (2007). Yerba mate: pharmacological properties, research and biotechnologyMed Aromat Plant Sci Biotechnol1(1), 37-46. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net

Filip, R., Lotito, S. B., Ferraro, G., & Fraga, C. G. (2000). Antioxidant activity of Ilex paraguariensis and related species. Nutrition Research, 20(10), 1437-1446. DOI: 10.1016/S0271-5317(00)80024-X

Formica, J. V., & Regelson, W. (1995). Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoidsFood and chemical toxicology33(12), 1061-1080. DOI: 10.1016/0278-6915(95)00077-1

Heck, C. I., & De Mejia, E. G. (2007). Yerba Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis): a comprehensive review on chemistry, health implications, and technological considerations. Journal of food science, 72(9). DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00535.x

Kang, Y. R., Lee, H. Y., Kim, J. H., Moon, D. I., Seo, M. Y., Park, S. H., … & Cho, S. W. (2012). Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat dietLaboratory animal research28(1), 23-29. DOI: 10.5625/lar.2012.28.1.23

Loch, C. R., Ril, F. T., Schwedersky, M. B., Fiorentin, T. R., Agranionih, C. M., Parizzi, R. C., … & Cichoski, A. J. (2014). Metabolic parameters of rats fed with prato cheese containing Yerba Mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill) and probiotic cultures. Revista Brasileira de Tecnologia Agroindustrial, 8(2). DOI: 10.3895/S1981-36862014000200011

Luzia, L. A., Bastos, D. H. M., & Rondó, P. H. (2015). Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil) and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 3(3), 182-190. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.971.3233&rep=rep1&type=pdf

de Mejía, E. G., Song, Y. S., Heck, C. I., & Ramírez-Mares, M. (2010). Yerba mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis): Phenolics, antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferationJournal of Functional Foods2(1), 23-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2009.12.003

Miranda, D. D., Arçari, D. P., Pedrazzoli, J., Carvalho, P. D. O., Cerutti, S. M., Bastos, D. H., & Ribeiro, M. L. (2008). Protective effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on H2O2-induced DNA damage and DNA repair in mice. Mutagenesis, 23(4), 261-265. DOI: 10.1093/mutage/gen011

De Morais, E. C., Stefanuto, A., Klein, G. A., Boaventura, B. C., De Andrade, F., Wazlawik, E., … & da Silva, E. L. (2009). Consumption of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(18), 8316-8324. DOI: 10.1021/jf901660g

Puangpraphant, S., Dia, V. P., Mejia, E. G., Garcia, G., Berhow, M. A., & Wallig, M. A. (2013). Yerba mate tea and mate saponins prevented azoxymethane‐induced inflammation of rat colon through suppression of NF‐κB p65ser311 signaling via IκB‐α and GSK‐3β reduced phosphorylation. Biofactors, 39(4), 430-440. DOI: 10.1002/biof.1083

Blue Light Therapy

Summary

Organisms are cued by the 24-hour light dark cycle, which is built into their biological processes and acts in magnitude as a paramount influence on human behaviour (Chellapa, Godijn & Cajochen, 2011). Light is something we take for granted, yet it is closely linked to our behaviour, endocrines, pulse rate, alertness, mood, performance, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, body temperature and gene expression (Beaven & Ekström, 2013; Chellapa et al., 2011). Blue light therapy is used to mimic morning daylight which encourages the body and brain to awaken (Gabel et al., 2013).

Vandewalle et al. (2013) have revealed through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that even blind individuals can respond to light. Their study involved an auditory working memory task; what they found was that just one minute of blue light therapy led to increased activity in the prefrontal and thalamic cortices, which are brain regions involved in alertness and cognitive regulation (Vandewalle et al., 2013). Gabel et al. (2013) note that light interacts with the with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the brain region responsible for regulating our circadian rhythm, which is then able to modulate and influence the neural activity in widespread brain regions (Gabel et al., 2013). This overarching brain activation creates the wakefulness state that we are all accustomed to.

Benefits and Effects

Short-wavelength light such as blue light (460-nm) has been found to decrease subjective sleepiness, improve attentional capacity and vigilance and lower EEG wavelength density in the delta-theta frequency, which are wavelengths associated with sleep (Chellapa et al., 2011; Lehrl et al., 2007). Numerous studies have shown the ability of blue light therapy to induce wakefulness, further promote improved cognitive performance, mood, and subjective-wellbeing as well as reduce stress (Beaven & Ekström, 2013; Chellappa et al., 2011; Ekström & Beaven, 2014; Gabel et al., 2013; Lehrl et al., 2007; Vandewalle et al., 2013). Gabel et al. (2013), noted that blue light therapy does not replace sleep quality, as the benefits of this short-wavelength light are less pronounced with increased sleep restriction.

Duration

According to Gabel et al. (2013), to produce optimal and lasting changes in cognitive performance throughout your day, you may introduce 30 minutes of blue light, gradually increasing in intensity followed by 20 minutes of moderate intensity, for a total of 50 minutes. Chellappa et al. (2011) note that only 1 minute of light exposure can produce benefits in cognition for up to 20 minutes.

References

Beaven, C. M., & Ekström, J. (2013). A comparison of blue light and caffeine effects on cognitive function and alertness in humans. PloS one, 8(10), e76707. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076707

Chellappa, S. L., Gordijn, M. C., & Cajochen, C. (2011). Can light make us bright? Effects of light on cognition and sleep. In Progress in brain research (Vol. 190, pp. 119-133). Elsevier.

Ekström, J. G., & Beaven, C. M. (2014). Effects of blue light and caffeine on mood. Psychopharmacology, 231(18), 3677-3683. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-014-3503-8

Gabel, V., Maire, M., Reichert, C. F., Chellappa, S. L., Schmidt, C., Hommes, V., … & Cajochen, C. (2013). Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels. Chronobiology international, 30(8), 988-997. DOI: DOI: 10.3109/07420528.2013.793196

Lehrl, S., Gerstmeyer, K., Jacob, J. H., Frieling, H., Henkel, A. W., Meyrer, R., … & Bleich, S. (2007). Blue light improves cognitive performance. Journal of neural transmission, 114(4), 457-460. DOI: 10.1007/s00702-006-0621-4

Vandewalle, G., Collignon, O., Hull, J. T., Daneault, V., Albouy, G., Lepore, F., … & Lockley, S. W. (2013). Blue light stimulates cognitive brain activity in visually blind individuals. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 25(12), 2072-2085. DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_00450

Alpha GPC

Summary

Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, simply referred to as Alpha GPC is a pro-phospholipid nutrient that is readily soluble in water and found in nature in abundance in human mother’s milk (Kidd, 2002). Alpha GPC, administered orally, easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it is a building block for acetylcholine (ACh) a common neurotransmitter throughout the brain as well as body (Kidd, 2002; Lopez, 2001).

Benefits and Effects

  • Increases mental acuity or focus in healthy adult and elderly subjects (Kidd, 2001);
  • Improves attention and recall in young healthy adults (Canal et al., 1991; Canal et al., 1993; Kidd, 2002);
  • Improves reaction time in middle-aged and elderly adults (Moglia, Bergonzoli, & Moliner, 1990; Sicurella, 1990; Kidd, 2002);
  • Improved cognitive deficits of emotional state, confusion and apathy associated with Dementia (Parnetti, Amenta & Gallai, 2001; Kidd, 2002; Wang, Zhang & Tang, 2009);
  • Decreased the recovery time of those inflicted with ischemic damage, such as a stroke (Parnetti et al., 2001; Sangiorgi et al., 1994);
  • Improved isometric strength during weight training (Bellar, LeBlanc & Campbell, 2015);
  • Reduces inflammation, improves microcirculation and hepatocellular quality (Harmann, et al., 2014; Tőkés, 2015);
  • Shows neuroprotective ability in animal studies (Plangar, 2014; Szabó, 2016).

Dosage

300mg

References

Bellar, D., LeBlanc, N. R., & Campbell, B. (2015). The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 42. DOI: 10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x

Canal N, et al. (1991). Effect of L-a-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine. Intl J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxico, (29), 103-107.

Canal N, et al. (1993). Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with choline alfoscerate, idebenone, aniracetam and placebo on scopolamine-induced amnesia. Le Basi Razionali della Terapia, (23) 102-107.

Hartmann, P., Fet, N., Garab, D., Szabó, A., Kaszaki, J., Srinivasan, P. K., … & Boros, M. (2014). L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine reduces the microcirculatory dysfunction and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase type 4 induction after partial hepatic ischemia in rats. Journal of Surgical Research, 189(1), 32-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.12.025

Kidd, P. M. (2001). GPC, Nutraceutical breakthrough for mental performance. Total Health, 23, 55-56.

Kidd, P. (2002). Phospholipids: versatile nutraceuticals for functional foods. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, 1-5.

Lopez, C. M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F., Bergamaschi, S., Longoni, A., Giaroni, C., & Trabucchi, M. (1991). Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39(4), 835-840. DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(91)90040-9

Moglia, A., Bergonzoli, S., & De Moliner, P. (1990). Effect of aGFC in brain mapping changes in patients with age associated memory impairment (AAMI). Le Basi Razionali della Terapia, 20, 83-89.

Parnetti, L., Amenta, F., & Gallai, V. (2001). Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 122(16), 2041-2055. DOI: 10.1016/S0047-6374(01)00312-8

Plangár, I., Szabó, E. R., Tőkés, T., Mán, I., Brinyiczki, K., Fekete, G., … & Hideghéty, K. (2014). Radio-neuroprotective effect of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) in an experimental rat model. Journal of neuro-oncology, 119(2), 253-261. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-014-1489-z

Sangiorgi, G. B., Barbagallo, M., Giordano, M., Meli, M., & Panzarasa, R. (1994). α‐Glycerophosphocholine in the Mental Recovery of Cerebral Ischemic Attacks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 717(1), 253-269. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb12095.x

Sicurella, L. (1990). Changes in VEP in subjects treated with alphaGFC. Preliminary study. Le Basi Raz Ter, 20, 91.

Szabó, E. R., Plangár, I., Tőkés, T., Mán, I., Polanek, R., Kovács, R., … & Hideghéty, K. (2016). l-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine as a potential radioprotective agent in zebrafish embryo model. Zebrafish, 13(6), 481-488. DOI: 10.1089/zeb.2016.1269

Tőkés, T., Tuboly, E., Varga, G., Major, L., Ghyczy, M., Kaszaki, J., & Boros, M. (2015). Protective effects of l-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine on ischaemia–reperfusion-induced inflammatory reactions. European journal of nutrition, 54(1), 109-118. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-014-0691-2

Wang, J., Zhang, H. Y., & Tang, X. C. (2009). Cholinergic deficiency involved in vascular dementia: possible mechanism and strategy of treatment. Acta pharmacologica sinica, 30(7), 879. DOI:10.1038/aps.2009.82

Noopept

Summary

Noopept (N-phenylacetyl-L-polyglycine ethyl ester) is a relatively new and promising nootropic compound that is known for its potent effects (Ostrovskaia, Gudasheva, Voronina & Seredenin, 2002). Noopept was formed based on its derivative action and similar pharmalogical properties to Piracetam, where Noopept requires one thousandth of the dose of Piracetam (Ostovskaia et al., 2002). Though Piracetam is able to accentuate early memory functions, Noopept works to facilitate the further memory processes of consolidation and retrieval, including spatial memory (Ostovskaia et al., 2002; Ostrovskaya et al., 2007). Noopepts actions can be pinned down to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as capacity to inhibit neurotoxicity caused by neuronal excitation caused by overabundant calcium and/or glutamate, and also produces improvements in microcirculation (Ostovskaia et al., 2002; Kovalenko et al., 2002a).

Benefits and Effects

Dosage

5mg to 10mg

 

References

Jia, X., Gharibyan, A. L., Öhman, A., Liu, Y., Olofsson, A., & Morozova-Roche, L. A. (2011). Neuroprotective and nootropic drug Noopept rescues α-synuclein amyloid cytotoxicityJournal of molecular biology414(5), 699-712. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.09.044

Kovalenko, L. P., Miramedova, M. G., Alekseeva, S. V., Gudasheva, T. A., Ostrovskaia, R. U., & Seredenin, S. B. (2002a). Anti-inflammatory properties of Noopept (dipeptide nootropic agent GVS-111)Eksperimental’naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia65(2), 53-55.

Kovalenko, L. P., Smol’nikova, N. M., Alekseeva, S. V., Nemova, E. P., Sorokina, A. V., Miramedova, M. G., … & Kulakova, A. V. (2002b). Preclinical study of noopept toxicityEksperimental’naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia65(1), 62-64.

Ostrovskaia, R. U., Gudasheva, T. A., Voronina, T. A., & Seredenin, S. B. (2002). The original novel nootropic and neuroprotective agent noopept. Eksperimental’naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia65(5), 66-72. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12596521

Ostrovskaya, R. U., Gruden, M. A., Bobkova, N. A., Sewell, R. D., Gudasheva, T. A., Samokhin, A. N., … & Morozova-Roche, L. A. (2007). The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer’s disease modelJournal of psychopharmacology21(6), 611-619. DOI: 10.1177/0269881106071335

Ostrovskaya, R. U., Gudasheva, T. A., Zaplina, A. P., Vahitova, J. V., Salimgareeva, M. H., Jamidanov, R. S., & Seredenin, S. B. (2008). Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampusBulletin of experimental biology and medicine146(3), 334-337. DOI: /10.1007/s10517-008-0297-x

Ostrovskaya, R. U., Vakhitova, Y. V., Kuzmina, U. S., Salimgareeva, M. K., Zainullina, L. F., Gudasheva, T. A., … & Seredenin, S. B. (2014). Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylationJournal of biomedical science21(1), 74. DOI: 10.1186/s12929-014-0074-2

 

 

 

Rhodiola rosea

Summary

Rhodiola rosea, less commonly known as Rhodiola, Roseroot, Rosenroot, Golden Root, Arctic Root, or Orpin Rose (Panossian, Wikman & Sarria, 2010), grows in high altitudes throughout the mountainous regions of Europe and Asia (Brown, Gerbarg, & Ramazanov, 2002). Due to its ability to promote resistance to chemical, physical and biological stressors, Rhodiola rosea was designated an adaptogen by Russian scientists (Kelly, 2001). Some researchers believe that Rhodiola rosea use dates back to the Vikings as a medicinal compound used to enhance vigorous and strenuous work (Panossian et al., 2010). Since 1961 there have been more than 180 studies on the adaptogen’s pharmacological, phytochemical and clinical effects (Panossian et al., 2010), however the majority of modern research has been conducted in Russia and Scandinavia (Kelly, 2001). In traditional medicine Rhodiola rosea has been used to “increase physical endurance, work productivity, longevity, resistance to high altitude sickness, and to treat fatigue, depression, anemia, impotence, gastrointestinal ailments, infections, and nervous system disorders” (Brown et al., 2002, p. 41).

Benefits and Effects

  • Reduces burn-out, mental fatigue and cortisol levels associated with stress (Darbinyan et al., 2000; Olsson et al., 2009; Spasov et al., 2000);
  • Promotes cognition through neuroprotective, antioxidant, stimulatory yet emotionally calming effects, reduces forgetfulness, memory impairment, irritability, inability to concentrate, and cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer’s (Qu et al., 2009; Walker & Robergs, 2006; Fintelmann & Gruenwald, 2007; Khanum, et al., 2005);
  • Promotes a sense of general well-being and reduces depression (Brown et al., 2002; Panossian et al., 2010; Khanum et al., 2005);
  • Improves exercise endurance capacity, work capacity and cardiovascular functioning (De Bock et al., 2004; Spasov et al., 2000; Kelly, 2001).

Dosage

360-600 mg standardized for 1-percent rosavin

180-300 mg standardized for 2-percent rosavin

100-170 mg standardized for 3.6-percent rosavin

References

Brown, R. P., Gerbarg, P. L., & Ramazanov, Z. (2002). Rhodiola rosea. A phytomedicinal overview. HerbalGram56, 40-52. Retrieved from https://realdosestatic.com/common/info/research/Rhodiola-Phytomedicinal-Overview-Brown-Gerbarg.pdf

Darbinyan, V., Kteyan, A., Panossian, A., Gabrielian, E., Wikman, G., & Wagner, H. (2000). Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue—a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night dutyPhytomedicine7(5), 365-371. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80055-0

De Bock, K., Eijnde, B. O., Ramaekers, M., & Hespel, P. (2004). Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performanceInternational journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism14(3), 298-307. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.298

Fintelmann, V., & Gruenwald, J. (2007). Efficacy and tolerability of a Rhodiola rosea extract in adults with physical and cognitive deficienciesAdvances in therapy24(4), 929-939. doi: 10.1007/BF02849986

Khanum, F., Bawa, A. S., & Singh, B. (2005). Rhodiola rosea: a versatile adaptogenComprehensive reviews in food science and food safety4(3), 55-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2005.tb00073.

Kelly, G. (2001). Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen. Altern Med Rev6(3), 293-302. Retrieved from http://www.brainlife.org/fulltext/2001/kelly_gs010600.pdf

Olsson, E. M., von Schéele, B., & Panossian, A. G. (2009). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatiguePlanta medica75(02), 105-112. Doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1088346

Panossian, A., Wikman, G., & Sarris, J. (2010). Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacyPhytomedicine17(7), 481-493. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.002

Qu, Z. Q., Zhou, Y., Zeng, Y. S., Li, Y., & Chung, P. (2009). Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extract reduces cognitive impairment induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats: implication of anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effectsBiomedical and environmental sciences22(4), 318-326. doi: 10.1016/S0895-3988(09)60062-3

Spasov, A. A., Wikman, G. K., Mandrikov, V. B., Mironova, I. A., & Neumoin, V. V. (2000). A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimenPhytomedicine7(2), 85-89. doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80078-1

Walker, T. B., & Robergs, R. A. (2006). Does Rhodiola rosea possess ergogenic properties?International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism16(3), 305-315. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.16.3.305

Happy International Women’s Day 2018

By One Amazing Woman at MEM

Self-Care for Everyday Women

It is exhausting being human in today’s world. I am specifically talking about women today because of the importance of celebrating our successes, but I also highly acknowledge the fact that men are also burning themselves out with work, family, social, and personal pressures being placed upon them.

All my ladies out there, today is your day. Today is the day you recognize how great you are. You look in the mirror and you tell yourself “YOU DID IT!” “YOU ARE AMAZING!” “YOU ARE BEAUTIFUL.” Tell yourself all the things you have been neglecting to tell yourself for years. Today is our day. Happy International Women’s Day! I saw a post on Facebook that said “Here’s to strong women: may we know them, may we be them, may we raise them!” It isn’t enough to be just one of those categories, we must find a way to do them all.

Strong Women: May We Know Them

Today is the day you must think of who you surround yourselves with. Who do you allow into your life to make your world a better place. We’ve all had those friends who mentally drain us. We have those friends who don’t consider what we need or cannot bother to help, but the moment they need anything we’re there. You must be able to identify the women in your life who are lifting you up, and the women who you’re carrying.

Question for yourself: WHO LIFTS YOU UP?

My answer comes to me quickly, my mother. Not everyone is as lucky as I am to have a mother who carries them when they need it. My mother is strong, she is beautiful, she is funny, and she is super caring. I am 30 years old and my mom still kisses my heart aches and patches my bruises. She is the most creative person I know, she makes a killer casserole, and she’s the best carpenter I have ever met. She can renovate a room in 12 hours and will not stop until the job is done. My mother is amazing because she doesn’t fit into one box and she has taught me that I don’t have to fit in a single box.

Strong Women: May We be Them

It has taken me my entire life to be the strong woman I deserve to be, and yet I am still working at it. Growing up I was insecure. I was scared, and I was bullied. I suffered from depression, anxiety, and multiple eating disorders for my entire life because I did not know how to manage myself while pleasing everyone else. I was very lucky to not have caused serious damage to my body, but not so lucky with my mind. It has taken me years of self-care, therapy, and self realization to get past the words that others have said to me. I have always felt this weakness inside because of mental illness, but that is our first step. It takes a strong person to bear the weight of mental illness. I recognize my achievements and my happiness relies on me learning to see the greatness within myself.

When I started this journey of self healing I had a Life Coach, she told me to recognize my greatness every day, even when I was not feeling it. Every day I wrote down one good thing about myself. I would then look in the mirror and read it to myself. This is your task today: What did you do that was exceptional? For some of us this means getting out of bed, brushing our teeth and facing the world for a short amount of time. For me this means accepting that the path I am on is not only sufficient, but excellent. I am where I need to be, it is okay that I don’t make a million dollars, or that I haven’t saved the world. It is enough to get to hug one child and teach another to write their name. Every small step is the step I need to take.  So, what’s good? Tell yourself in the mirror something you’ve accomplished today. Something you are proud of, or something you pushed yourself to do.

Strong Women: May We Raise Them

It would go against everything I stand for to say that this post means that women need to have children, and if it is a girl you need to teach her how to act in society. If you are a mother of a little girl, be your best self. If you never want to have children, great, don’t. I ask every single person reading this to recognize that you are a role model to those around you. There are little eyes everywhere and children see everything. Be the role model for the next generation of little girls. Stop calling yourself fat in public. Stop shaming yourself for the cupcake you desperately want to eat. Stop beating yourself up because you are still at work doing the best you can for your family when you know your little humans are getting ready for bed. Stop hating. Stop beating yourself up. For the love of the planet, Stop judging yourself and others! Start thanking yourself, and those around you. Start breathing and realizing that mistakes are made so we can learn. Have the cupcake, go for the walk, cry, laugh, scream! Do what you need to do so that girls and boys all learn what it is like to be human.

Think of a little human that you inspire. Now, how do they inspire you? Tell them.

Self Care tip of the Week: Tell yourself you love yourself. Try and make every thought that comes out of your mind be a positive thought. The negative thoughts won’t just stop, however, when they come let them pass and tell yourself something good immediately after. Daily KUDOS to remember why you matter!